The behavior of light known as lasing is the result of quantum coherent behavior at a macroscale – it involves an astoundingly large assembly of photons all oscillating in phase, at a uniform wavelength. With the advent of lasers – which was made possible by the theoretical work of Albert Einstein in his elucidation of the photoelectric effect – the technique of holography was soon to be developed.

A hologram is a two-dimensional image which stores information about all three dimensions of the object it represents. The two images here are photographs of a single hologram taken from different angles.

The production of a holographic image involves using coherent light to record a wave-interference pattern on a photographic plate. The wave-interference pattern is a two-dimensional recording of the diffraction pattern of a 3-dimensional object, and when it is illuminated with normal polychromatic light, it reproduces a 3-dimensional image. It is this phenomenon from which the relatively new theory within physics known as the Holographic Principle derives its name. The Holographic Principle was first formulated by Gerard t’Hooft when it was mathematically shown that the information (referred to as entropy within physics, or degrees of freedom for an even more technical-based moniker) within the volume of any 3-dimensional space can be fully described by the two-dimensional surface enclosing that space (see Berkenstein Conjecture for more in depth discussion of information mapping).

It was soon realized that this principle could resolve a putative problem that had arisen in physics known as the *information loss paradox*. Stephen Hawking conjectured that black holes should actually radiate with emissions of particles from the quantum vacuum, which would eventually lead to their evaporation, albeit over an astronomically long period of time for solar mass black holes. If nothing can escape from the interior region of the event horizon that would mean all of the information initially contained by the collapsed star would essentially have disappeared. This violates a quantum mechanical principle of the conservation of information, much like the conservation of mass and energy. However, if the information is holographically encoded by vacuum fluctuations on the surface of the light-like boundary of the graviational horizon, then it is still accessible to the “physical universe”, and is therefore not lost. Furthermore, the Hawking radiation may be quantum entangled with the trans-horizon area, making it possible that the interior information is retained in the emissions even as the black hole evaporates (assuming that black holes truly evaporate, as in fact, according to Haramein there is a continuous feedback of information from the vacuum fluctuations rendering a dynamics equilibrium state to black hole structures).

Expanding on this notion, physicist Juan Maldacena published a pivotal paper showing how Swarzschild black holes described in what is known as anti-De Sitter space (simply a spacetime with negative curvature) can be holographically approximated by two entangled quantum systems. The quantum systems are described by the mathematical formulations of quantum field theory, and anti-De Sitter space is a particular form of the geometric description of gravity in General Relativity, thus the holographic correspondence between these two theories is considered a particular solution of quantum gravity. Because it made possible the description of the evolution of black holes in accordance with the known principles of quantum mechanics, this Correspondence Principle appeared to resolve the seeming *information loss paradox*. And has now led to postulations that all of spacetime is built by quantum entanglement through black hole / wormholes, like an enormous network where particles are hubs and wormholes in the structure of the vacuum are the link between them (stay tuned for another article on this specific subject, with some of the latest publications in the near future).

Recently a team of researchers in Japan have offered mathematical support of this theory by testing its predictive power with a computer simulation. The particular computer simulation used is well respected because of its ability to model certain mathematical solutions to a high degree of accuracy. They found that the simulation resulted in a computed black hole mass that is exactly what would be predicted by the holographic description of an evaporating quantum black hole within the Holographic Principle.

While this has produced agreeable results that support the holographic formulation of quantum gravity and the elucidation of the quantum description of black holes, it may contain largely superfluous mathematics from the fact that it is formulated in 11-dimensions (10 dimensions of space and one dimension of time). This is because the solutions are generated within the context of 11-dimensional Supergravity, a theory of quantum gravity within the well-known physics of Superstring Theory. Wherein the vibration of infinitesimally small strings produce the characteristics matter and force that we are so familiar with. One of the complications of this theory is that we only observe 3 spatial dimensions (plus a temporal dimension, unified together as spacetime). So where are the other 7 dimensions described by this theory? Physicist have obviated this seeming deficit of observational support by suggesting that the extra dimensions are ‘compactified’ – that is to say they are compacted down into extremely small areas, conveniently too small to be measured and consequently resulting in compactification possibilities of these dimensions in the vacuum, one of the largest number of solutions outputted by any theory in history. As a result, in decades of investigation String Theory has not been able to produce one single prediction that could be verified experimentally.

However, in contrast to this extreme complexity, Haramein has produced a holographic solution to quantum gravity that does not require 7 extra hidden dimensions, just the 3 we know exist. In his revolutionary approach, as described in his latest paper Quantum Gravity and the Holographic Mass, Haramein demonstrates an exact solution for the gravitational mass of black holes by using the most fundamental spacetime quanta of energy – Planck oscillators. Imagine a veritable sea of absolutely tiny fluctuating particle-like spheres, which are so small that at our macroscopic scale they appear as a smooth and continuous space (just like the surface of the ocean appears smooth, but is made of tiny molecules). When the ratio relationship of these Planck spheres on the surface of a black hole event horizon to the number inside is calculated, the exact mass of the black hole is obtained! Haramein found that this solution works at the quantum level as well, generating a highly precise value for the mass of a proton, and from which he was able to predict what the exact radius of a proton should be. This prediction was subsequently confirmed in January 2013 muonic measurement of the radius of the proton by the Paul Scherrer proton accelerator in Switzerland. Furthermore, Haramein was able to demonstrate that the Strong Interaction (Strong Force) that holds the nuclei of atoms together may be the result of these holographic vacuum fluctuations generating a gravitational force equivalent to the strong confining force found between holographic black hole protons.

The Holographic and Correspondence Principles, and their application to unified theories of quantum gravity as well as wormhole entanglement, are very exciting areas of theoretical research at the leading edge of physics that have come entirely from considering the quantum nature of black holes. At the extremes of physical processes, where the rules that govern our everyday world seem to bend to the breaking point, we find innovative theories and novel solutions, such as Haramein’s geometric holographic solution, that emerge from the crucible of these seemingly irreconcilable paradoxes. And while understanding the structure and dynamics of our Universe is a worthy pursuit in and of itself, these fundamental theories have always been the foundation of technological advancements, which benefits everyone and our global civilization as a whole.

By: William Brown

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